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Farm Animal Surgery
If you decide to participate, a new browser tab will open so you can complete the survey after you have completed your visit to this website. Thanks in advance for your time. Skip to content. Search for books, journals or webpages All Pages Books Journals. Authors: Susan Fubini Norm Ducharme. Hardcover ISBN: Imprint: Saunders. Published Date: 15th April Neuromuscular blocking agents e. It is imperative that any proposed use of neuromuscular blocking drugs be carefully evaluated by the veterinarian and IACUC to ensure the well-being of the animal.
Acute stress is believed to be a consequence of paralysis in a conscious state and it is known that humans, if conscious, can experience distress when paralyzed with these drugs NRC ; Van Sluyters and Oberdorfer If paralyzing agents are to be used, the appropriate amount of anesthetic should first be defined on the basis of results of a similar procedure using the anesthetic without a blocking agent NRC , , a.
Euthanasia is the act of humanely killing animals by methods that induce rapid unconsciousness and death without pain or distress. In evaluating the appropriateness of methods, some of the criteria that should be considered are ability to induce loss of consciousness and death with no or only momentary pain, distress, or anxiety; reliability; irreversibility; time required to induce unconsciousness; appropriateness for the species and age of the animal; compatibility with research objectives; and the safety of and emotional effect on personnel.
Euthanasia may be planned and necessary at the end of a protocol or as a means to relieve pain or distress that cannot be alleviated by analgesics, sedatives, or other treatments. Criteria for euthanasia include protocol-specific endpoints such as degree of a physical or behavioral deficit or tumor size that will enable a prompt decision by the veterinarian and the investigator to ensure that the endpoint is humane and, whenever possible, the scientific objective of the protocol is achieved see Chapter 2.
Euthanasia should be carried out in a manner that avoids animal distress. Automated systems for controlled and staged delivery of inhalants may offer advantages for species killed frequently or in large numbers, such as rodents McIntyre et al. Special consideration should be given to euthanasia of fetuses and larval life forms depending on species and gestational age Artwohl et al.
Generally, chemical agents e. Although carbon dioxide CO 2 is a commonly used method for rodent euthanasia, there is ongoing controversy about its aversive characteristics as an inhalant euthanasia agent. This is an area of active research Conlee et al. The acceptability of CO 2 as a euthanasia agent for small rodents should be evaluated as new data become available.
Furthermore, because neonatal rodents are resistant to the hypoxia-inducing effects of CO 2 and require longer exposure times to the agent Artwohl et al. It is essential that euthanasia be performed by personnel skilled in methods for the species in question and in a professional and compassionate manner. Special attention is required to ensure proficiency when a physical method of euthanasia is used. Death must be confirmed by personnel trained to recognize cessation of vital signs in the species being euthanized.
A secondary method of euthanasia e. Euthanizing animals is psychologically difficult for some animal care, veterinary, and research personnel, particularly if they perform euthanasia repetitively or are emotionally attached to the animals being euthanized Arluke ; NRC ; Rollin ; Wolfle When delegating euthanasia responsibilities, supervisors should be sensitive to this issue.
Turn recording back on. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Search term. An adequate veterinary care program consists of assessment of animal well-being and effective management of animal procurement and transportation. Transportation of Animals Transportation of animals is governed by a number of US regulatory agencies and international bodies.
Animal Biosecurity Animal biosecurity refers to all measures taken to identify, contain, prevent, and eradicate known or unknown infections that may cause clinical disease or alter physiologic and behavioral responses or otherwise make the animals unsuitable for research. Quarantine and Stabilization Quarantine is the separation of newly received animals from those already in the facility, in a way that prevents potential spread of contaminants, until the health and possibly the microbial status of the newly received animals have been determined. Separation by Health Status and Species Physical separation of animals by species is recommended to prevent interspecies disease transmission and to eliminate the potential for anxiety and physiologic and behavioral changes due to interspecies conflict Arndt et al.
A few examples may serve as a guide in determining the need for separate housing by species: Helicobacter bilis can infect rats and mice and may induce clinical disease in both species Haines et al.
Simian hemorrhagic fever Renquist and simian immunodeficiency virus Hirsch et al. Some species should be housed in separate rooms even though they are from the same geographic region. For example, squirrel monkeys Saimiri sciureus and tamarins Saguinus oedipus may be latently infected with herpesviruses Herpesvirus saimiri and H. Surveillance, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Control of Disease All animals should be observed for signs of illness, injury, or abnormal behavior by a person trained to recognize such signs. Emergency Care Procedures must be in place to provide for emergency veterinary care both during and outside of regularly scheduled hours.
Recordkeeping Medical records are a key element of the veterinary care program and are considered critical for documenting animal well-being as well as tracking animal care and use at a facility. SURGERY Successful surgical outcomes require appropriate attention to presurgical planning, personnel training, anesthesia, aseptic and surgical technique, assessment of animal well-being, appropriate use of analgesics, and animal physiologic status during all phases of a protocol involving surgery and postoperative care see Appendix A , Anesthesia, Pain, and Surgery.
Training Researchers conducting surgical procedures must have appropriate training to ensure that good surgical technique is practiced—that is, asepsis, gentle tissue handling, minimal dissection of tissue, appropriate use of instruments, effective hemostasis, and correct use of suture materials and patterns Brown et al. Presurgical Planning Presurgical planning should include input from all members of the surgical team e. Surgical Facilities Unless an exception is specifically justified as an essential component of the research protocol and approved by the IACUC, aseptic surgery should be conducted in dedicated facilities or spaces.
Surgical Procedures Surgical procedures are categorized as major or minor and, in the laboratory setting, can be further divided into survival and nonsurvival. Aseptic Technique Aseptic technique is used to reduce microbial contamination to the lowest possible practical level Mangram et al. Intraoperative Monitoring Careful monitoring and timely attention to problems increase the likelihood of a successful surgical outcome Kuhlman Postoperative Care An important component of postsurgical care is observation of the animal and intervention as necessary during recovery from anesthesia and surgery Haskins and Eisele ILAR J.
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Surgery Guidelines for Rodents
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Inflammatory large bowel disease in immunodeficient rats naturally and experimentally infected with Helicobacter bilis. Vet Pathol. Comparison of postoperative pain after ovariohysterectomy by harmonic scalpel-assisted laparoscopy compared with median celiotomy and ligation in dogs. Vet Surg. Postoperative support and intensive care. Anesthesia and Analgesia in Laboratory Animals. Hawkins P. Recognizing and assessing pain, suffering and distress in laboratory animals: A survey of current practice in the UK with recommendations.
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Videoendoscopic techniques for collection of multiple serial intra-abdominal biopsy specimens in HIV-negative and HIV-positive pigtail macaques Macaca nemestrina. Peterson NC. From bench to cageside: Risk assessment for rodent pathogen contamination of cells and biologics. Effect of a conditioning method on general safety test in guinea pigs.
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