Research Surgery and Care of the Research Animal. Surgical Approaches to the Organ Systems

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If you decide to participate, a new browser tab will open so you can complete the survey after you have completed your visit to this website. Thanks in advance for your time. Skip to content. Search for books, journals or webpages All Pages Books Journals. Authors: Susan Fubini Norm Ducharme. Hardcover ISBN: Imprint: Saunders. Published Date: 15th April Neuromuscular blocking agents e. It is imperative that any proposed use of neuromuscular blocking drugs be carefully evaluated by the veterinarian and IACUC to ensure the well-being of the animal.

Acute stress is believed to be a consequence of paralysis in a conscious state and it is known that humans, if conscious, can experience distress when paralyzed with these drugs NRC ; Van Sluyters and Oberdorfer If paralyzing agents are to be used, the appropriate amount of anesthetic should first be defined on the basis of results of a similar procedure using the anesthetic without a blocking agent NRC , , a.

Euthanasia is the act of humanely killing animals by methods that induce rapid unconsciousness and death without pain or distress. In evaluating the appropriateness of methods, some of the criteria that should be considered are ability to induce loss of consciousness and death with no or only momentary pain, distress, or anxiety; reliability; irreversibility; time required to induce unconsciousness; appropriateness for the species and age of the animal; compatibility with research objectives; and the safety of and emotional effect on personnel.

Euthanasia may be planned and necessary at the end of a protocol or as a means to relieve pain or distress that cannot be alleviated by analgesics, sedatives, or other treatments. Criteria for euthanasia include protocol-specific endpoints such as degree of a physical or behavioral deficit or tumor size that will enable a prompt decision by the veterinarian and the investigator to ensure that the endpoint is humane and, whenever possible, the scientific objective of the protocol is achieved see Chapter 2.

Euthanasia should be carried out in a manner that avoids animal distress. Automated systems for controlled and staged delivery of inhalants may offer advantages for species killed frequently or in large numbers, such as rodents McIntyre et al. Special consideration should be given to euthanasia of fetuses and larval life forms depending on species and gestational age Artwohl et al.

Generally, chemical agents e. Although carbon dioxide CO 2 is a commonly used method for rodent euthanasia, there is ongoing controversy about its aversive characteristics as an inhalant euthanasia agent. This is an area of active research Conlee et al. The acceptability of CO 2 as a euthanasia agent for small rodents should be evaluated as new data become available.

Furthermore, because neonatal rodents are resistant to the hypoxia-inducing effects of CO 2 and require longer exposure times to the agent Artwohl et al. It is essential that euthanasia be performed by personnel skilled in methods for the species in question and in a professional and compassionate manner. Special attention is required to ensure proficiency when a physical method of euthanasia is used. Death must be confirmed by personnel trained to recognize cessation of vital signs in the species being euthanized.

A secondary method of euthanasia e. Euthanizing animals is psychologically difficult for some animal care, veterinary, and research personnel, particularly if they perform euthanasia repetitively or are emotionally attached to the animals being euthanized Arluke ; NRC ; Rollin ; Wolfle When delegating euthanasia responsibilities, supervisors should be sensitive to this issue.

Turn recording back on. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Search term. An adequate veterinary care program consists of assessment of animal well-being and effective management of animal procurement and transportation. Transportation of Animals Transportation of animals is governed by a number of US regulatory agencies and international bodies.

Animal Biosecurity Animal biosecurity refers to all measures taken to identify, contain, prevent, and eradicate known or unknown infections that may cause clinical disease or alter physiologic and behavioral responses or otherwise make the animals unsuitable for research. Quarantine and Stabilization Quarantine is the separation of newly received animals from those already in the facility, in a way that prevents potential spread of contaminants, until the health and possibly the microbial status of the newly received animals have been determined. Separation by Health Status and Species Physical separation of animals by species is recommended to prevent interspecies disease transmission and to eliminate the potential for anxiety and physiologic and behavioral changes due to interspecies conflict Arndt et al.

A few examples may serve as a guide in determining the need for separate housing by species: Helicobacter bilis can infect rats and mice and may induce clinical disease in both species Haines et al.

Simian hemorrhagic fever Renquist and simian immunodeficiency virus Hirsch et al. Some species should be housed in separate rooms even though they are from the same geographic region. For example, squirrel monkeys Saimiri sciureus and tamarins Saguinus oedipus may be latently infected with herpesviruses Herpesvirus saimiri and H. Surveillance, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Control of Disease All animals should be observed for signs of illness, injury, or abnormal behavior by a person trained to recognize such signs. Emergency Care Procedures must be in place to provide for emergency veterinary care both during and outside of regularly scheduled hours.

Recordkeeping Medical records are a key element of the veterinary care program and are considered critical for documenting animal well-being as well as tracking animal care and use at a facility. SURGERY Successful surgical outcomes require appropriate attention to presurgical planning, personnel training, anesthesia, aseptic and surgical technique, assessment of animal well-being, appropriate use of analgesics, and animal physiologic status during all phases of a protocol involving surgery and postoperative care see Appendix A , Anesthesia, Pain, and Surgery.

Training Researchers conducting surgical procedures must have appropriate training to ensure that good surgical technique is practiced—that is, asepsis, gentle tissue handling, minimal dissection of tissue, appropriate use of instruments, effective hemostasis, and correct use of suture materials and patterns Brown et al. Presurgical Planning Presurgical planning should include input from all members of the surgical team e. Surgical Facilities Unless an exception is specifically justified as an essential component of the research protocol and approved by the IACUC, aseptic surgery should be conducted in dedicated facilities or spaces.

Surgical Procedures Surgical procedures are categorized as major or minor and, in the laboratory setting, can be further divided into survival and nonsurvival. Aseptic Technique Aseptic technique is used to reduce microbial contamination to the lowest possible practical level Mangram et al. Intraoperative Monitoring Careful monitoring and timely attention to problems increase the likelihood of a successful surgical outcome Kuhlman Postoperative Care An important component of postsurgical care is observation of the animal and intervention as necessary during recovery from anesthesia and surgery Haskins and Eisele ILAR J.

AORN J. Arluke A. Uneasiness among laboratory technicians. Lab Anim. Co-species housing in mice and rats: Effects on physiological and behavioural stress responsivity. Horm Behav. J Invest Surg. Ayliffe GAJ. Role of the environment of the operating suite in surgical wound infection. Rev Infect Dis. Challenges in small animal noninvasive imaging. Experimental horizontal transmission of herpesvirus saimiri from squirrel monkeys to an owl monkey.

J Infect Dis. Bartley JM. Environmental control: Operating room air quality. Bateson P. Assessment of pain in animals. Anim Behav. Pain and distress in laboratory rodents and lagomorphs.


Beamer TC. Pathological changes associated with ovarian transplantation. Belkin NJ. Barrier materials, their influence on surgical wound infections. Berg J. Textbook of Small Animal Surgery. Slatter D, editor. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; Guidelines for rodent survival surgery. Lurking in the shadows: Emerging rodent infectious diseases. Behavioral and physiological effects of inapparent wound infection in rats.

Lab Anim Sci. Brown MJ. Aseptic surgery for rodents. Rodents and Rabbits: Current Research Issues. Perioperative care. Washington: National Agricultural Library; Guidelines for animal surgery in research and teaching. Am J Vet Res. Medical management. San Diego: Academic Press; A comparison of four methods for sterilizing surgical instruments for rodent surgery.

Contemp Top Lab Anim Sci.

Considerations in the selection and conditioning of Old World monkeys for laboratory research: Animals from domestic sources. Carstens E, Moberg GP. Recognizing pain and distress in laboratory animals. Chamberlain GV, Houang E. Trial of the use of masks in gynecological operating theatre. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. Clifford CB, Watson J.

Old enemies, still with us after all these years.

Surgery Guidelines for Rodents

Contribution of central neuroplasticity to pathological pain: Review of clinical and experimental evidence. Carbon dioxide for euthanasia: Concerns regarding pain and distress, with special reference to mice and rats. Lab Anim NY. Preparation of animals for research: Issues to consider for rodents and rabbits. The thin blue line: A review and discussion of aseptic technique and postprocedural infections in rodents. Cunliffe-Beamer TL. Biomethodology and surgical techniques. New York: Academic Press; Surgical techniques. Guidelines for the Well-Being of Rodents in Research.

Guttman HN, editor. Applying principles of aseptic surgery to rodents. AWIC Newsletter. Humane and practical implications of using carbon dioxide mixed with oxygen for anesthesia or euthanasia of rats. Dardai E, Heavner JE. Respiratory and cardiovascular effects of halothane, isoflurane and enflurane delivered via a Jackson-Rees breathing system in temperature controlled and uncontrolled rats.

Meth Find Exptl Clin Pharmacol. Duration, complications, stress, and pain of open ovariohysterectomy versus a simple method of laparoscopic-assisted ovariohysterectomy in dogs. Dubner R. Research on pain mechanisms in animals. Medical records for animals used in research, teaching and testing: Public statement from the American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine. Principles of anesthesia monitoring: Respiration. Principles of anesthesia monitoring: Body temperature. The use of aseptic surgery on rodents used in research. Euthanasia of rats with carbon dioxide: Animal welfare aspects.

Inflammatory large bowel disease in immunodeficient rats naturally and experimentally infected with Helicobacter bilis. Vet Pathol. Comparison of postoperative pain after ovariohysterectomy by harmonic scalpel-assisted laparoscopy compared with median celiotomy and ligation in dogs. Vet Surg. Postoperative support and intensive care. Anesthesia and Analgesia in Laboratory Animals. Hawkins P. Recognizing and assessing pain, suffering and distress in laboratory animals: A survey of current practice in the UK with recommendations.

Establishment of an operating room committee and a training program to improve aseptic techniques for rodent and large animal surgery. Simian immunodeficiency virus infection of macaques: End-stage disease is characterized by wide-spread distribution of proviral DNA in tissues. Hofmann LS. Preoperative and operative patient management. Comparison of three methods used for assessment of pain in dogs. Huerkamp MJR. Alcohol as a disinfectant for aseptic surgery of rodents: Crossing the thin blue line?

Control of pain in dogs and cats. Animal Pain: Perception and Alleviation. Spontaneous herpes-T infection in the owl monkey Aotus trivirgatus. Pathol Vet. Federal Register, May Washington: Office of Science and Technology Policy; Jacoby RO, Lindsey R.

Risks of infections among laboratory rats and mice at major biomedical research institutions. Joshi G, Ogunnaike B. Consequences of inadequate postoperative pain relief and chronic persistent postoperative pain. Anesthesiol Clin North America. Kagan KG. Aseptic technique. Vet Tech. Care and sterilization of surgical equipment. Am J Primatol.

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Karas AZ. Postoperative analgesia in the laboratory mouse, Mus musculus. Strategies for assessing and minimizing pain. Gas killing of rats: The effect of supplemental oxygen on aversion to carbon dioxide. Anim Welf. Euthanasia of mouse fetuses and neonates. Klein L. Neuromuscular blocking agents.

Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. 8th edition.

Principles and Practice of Veterinary Anesthesia. Short CE, editor. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins; Techniques and postoperative management for successful cardiopulmonary bypass and open-heart surgery in dogs. Public statement: Guidelines for the assessment and management of pain in rodents and rabbits.

Immunologic aspects of veterinary anesthesia and analgesia. Kuhlman SM. Principles of anesthesia monitoring: Introduction. Effects of shipping on the immune function in mice. Aversion to gaseous euthanasia agents in rats and mice. Comp Med. New approaches to tuberculosis surveillance in nonhuman primates. Lovaglio J, Lawson PT. A draping method for improving aseptic technique in rodent surgery. Helicobacter bilis infection accelerates and H. Am J Pathol. Maher JA, Schub T.

Veterinarian - Wikipedia

Laboratory rodent transportation supplies. Lab Animal. Guidelines for prevention of surgical site infection, Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. Evaluation of pain and stress levels of animals used in experimental research. J Surg Res. Monitoring of anesthesia. Automated mouse euthanasia in an individually ventilated caging system: System development and assessment.

McWilliams RM. Divided responsibilities for operating room asepsis: The dilemma of technology. Med Instrum. Application of a scaling model to establish and validate an interval level pain scale for assessment of acute pain in dogs. Occurrence of a carrier state for Herpesvirus tamarinus in marmosets. Appl Microbiol. Neurophysiological techniques to assess pain in animals. J Vet Pharmacol Ther. Contamination of transplantable tumors, cell lines, and monoclonal antibodies with rodent viruses.

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Establishing an appropriate period of acclimatization following transportation of laboratory animals. Otto G, Tolwani RJ. Use of microisolator caging in a risk-based mouse import and quarantine program: A retrospective study. The need for a cross-species approach to the study of pain in animals. The effect of surgical handwashing routines on the microbial counts of operating room nurses. Am J Infect Control. Videoendoscopy: An effective and efficient way to perform multiple visceral biopsies in small animals.

Videoendoscopic techniques for collection of multiple serial intra-abdominal biopsy specimens in HIV-negative and HIV-positive pigtail macaques Macaca nemestrina. Peterson NC. From bench to cageside: Risk assessment for rodent pathogen contamination of cells and biologics. Effect of a conditioning method on general safety test in guinea pigs.

Pritchett-Corning KR. Euthanasia of neonatal rats with carbon dioxide. Breeding and housing laboratory rats and mice in the same room does not affect the growth or reproduction of either species. Renquist D. Outbreak of simian hemorrhagic fever. J Med Primatol. Ritter MA, Marmion P. The exogenous sources and controls of microorganisms in the operating room.

Orthop Nurs. Roberts RA, Andrews K. Nonhuman primate quarantine: Its evolution and practice. Robertshaw D.

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    Evaluation of a short duration behaviour-based post-operative pain scoring system in rats. Eur J Pain. Behaviour-based assessment of the duration of laparotomy-induced abdominal pain and the analgesic effects of carprofen and buprenorphine in rats. Behav Pharmacol. Rutala WA. APIC guideline for selection and use of disinfectants. Am J Infect Contr. The effects of different types of transportation on plasma cortisol and testosterone concentrations in male goats. Br Vet J. Schofield JC.

    Research Surgery and Care of the Research Animal. Surgical Approaches to the Organ Systems Research Surgery and Care of the Research Animal. Surgical Approaches to the Organ Systems
    Research Surgery and Care of the Research Animal. Surgical Approaches to the Organ Systems Research Surgery and Care of the Research Animal. Surgical Approaches to the Organ Systems
    Research Surgery and Care of the Research Animal. Surgical Approaches to the Organ Systems Research Surgery and Care of the Research Animal. Surgical Approaches to the Organ Systems
    Research Surgery and Care of the Research Animal. Surgical Approaches to the Organ Systems Research Surgery and Care of the Research Animal. Surgical Approaches to the Organ Systems
    Research Surgery and Care of the Research Animal. Surgical Approaches to the Organ Systems Research Surgery and Care of the Research Animal. Surgical Approaches to the Organ Systems
    Research Surgery and Care of the Research Animal. Surgical Approaches to the Organ Systems Research Surgery and Care of the Research Animal. Surgical Approaches to the Organ Systems

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