The Jim Crow laws of segregation and disfranchisement were being applied to Mexicans as well as African-Americans in Texas between and , and the historian David Montejano has argued that a simplified and mythicized version of the Texan past was employed to rationalize and to justify the degraded social position of Mexicans. Griffith studio that produced Birth of a Nation that same year , the revolt is portrayed as one of outraged whites rising up against a drunken and lecherous Mexican soldiery.
Thus, in print and picture, the Alamo story was rewritten as a war between two hostile races. In their late twentieth-century San Antonio fieldwork, the anthropologists Richard R.
Flores and Holly Beachley Brear found the same binary logic still at work at the Alamo shrine itself, where the tacit erasure of the Tejanos and the juxtaposition of noble Anglo defenders against debased servants of Mexican tyranny continued. Brear, Holly Beachley. Austin: University of Texas Press. Crisp, James E. New York : Oxford University Press. Flores, Richard R. Gable, Eric.
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Anglos and Mexicans in the Making of Texas, — Fred H. Austin: Texas State Historical Association. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. September 24, Retrieved September 24, from Encyclopedia. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.
In the late s and early s, hundreds of Americans and Europeans flooded into the northern province of Mexico, known as Tejas Texas. The American-born colonists, clinging to the political beliefs they had grown up with in the United States , along with many Tejas-born Mexicans, or Tejanos, openly opposed any form of government that was not democratic in principle and application. Santa Anna began to raise a massive army in Mexico City to put down the rebellion. A ragtag army made up of Texas colonists, volunteers from the United States , and Tejanos attacked and defeated the Mexican military garrison at San Antonio de Bexar in December , expelling the soldiers from both the town and the nearby San Antonio de Valero mission, popularly known as the Alamo.
At the same time, Santa Anna was driving his army north from Mexico City through an unusually cold winter, intent on crushing this opposition. The Alamo was a sprawling three-acre compound of stone and adobe whose size and shape made it unsuitable as a fort. Colonel William Barret Travis, a former lawyer, and Colonel James Bowie , known for his adventures and the knife that bore his name, shared command of the small Alamo garrison. Both were determined to defend it against all odds. Among the American volunteers who joined the garrison was David Crockett , former congressman from Tennessee.
Santa Anna and advance elements of his army marched into San Antonio on February 23, , and immediately began a siege and continuous. Bowie fell gravely ill on the first day of the siege, and sole command of the garrison rested with Travis from that day on. The siege and bombardment of the Alamo continued for twelve days, with additional units of the Mexican army arriving to reinforce the advance troops. Some Texan reinforcements managed to sneak into the Alamo to aid the beleaguered garrison, but Travis's messages for help went largely unanswered.
Santa Anna attacked the Alamo on March 6, , in a predawn assault that he hoped would catch the exhausted defenders unprepared. Just before dawn, sixteen hundred Mexican soldiers attacked from all four sides. The defenders, numbering just over two hundred, beat back two attacks, but a third assault breached the north wall and Mexican soldiers poured into the Alamo. The soldiers moved through the compound killing the garrison's defenders in hand-to-hand fighting. Within ninety minutes, all the defenders were dead and the battle was over. Their bodies were burned without ceremony.
Texas won its independence from Mexico on April 21, , when the army of Texas, under the command of General Sam Houston, attacked Santa Anna's camp at San Jacinto while the Mexican soldiers were resting. The Mexican army had pursued the retreating Texas army for weeks following the battle of the Alamo, and Santa Anna had moved ahead of his main body of troops with a small force of twelve hundred men in an effort to cut off Houston's escape. Houston attacked with less than eight hundred men, routing the Mexican forces and capturing Santa Anna.
The Texas battle cry that day was "Remember the Alamo! But an ongoing border dispute with Mexico over ownership of lands north of the Rio Grande continued even after Texas was granted statehood in the United States in In , units of the U. A war between the United States and Mexico ensued. The battle at the Alamo invigorated Americans' determination to achieve independence for Texas, and this ultimately led to the creation of the Republic of Texas, which in turn intensified the settlers' desire to become part of the United States and fostered a major debate over the future of Texas and those Mexican lands situated above the Rio Grande.
The resulting concerns led to the Mexican War of , the Compromise of , and the debate over slavery in the territories—all of which contributed to the events leading to the Civil War — Through the years, however, the battle of the Alamo has been remembered less for its remote link to the coming Civil War than for its battle cry. The battle cry has become a feature of American identity and the battle itself an icon of American popular culture, illustrating the mythic heroism of ordinary people. Edmondson, J. Plano: Republic of Texas Press, Timanus, Rod.
An Illustrated History of Texas Forts. See also: Texas, Republic of. Battle of the Alamo. The battle ended a thirteen-day siege of the former Franciscan mission, which had served most recently as a barracks and fortification for soldiers from the Flying Company of Alamo de Parras — For Santa Anna, it had seemed essential to take the Alamo quickly, so that he could march deeper into Texas and quash an insurrection—one of several provincial rebellions against his centralized dictatorship.
The defenders of the Alamo, commanded jointly by Lieutenant Colonel William Barret Travis and James Bowie , believed that significant reinforcements would come to their aid and they could defend the site. Their miscalculation and the disaster that followed helped rally Texans, who defeated Santa Anna at the decisive battle of San Jacinto on 21 April amid cries of "Remember the Alamo.
Of little military significance, the battle for the Alamo has remained important for its symbolic dimensions.
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Wartime propaganda and Texas enthusiasts turned the Alamo's Anglo-American defenders, including David "Davy" Crockett, into heroic martyrs, celebrated in prose, poetry, and cinema, and the battle site itself into a national shrine. At least seven Texas Mexicans also fought to the death alongside the Anglos, but memory of their role was obliterated by the anti-Mexican passions of the battle's aftermath and largely forgotten until Mexican Americans began to become a prominent political and intellectual force in American life in the s.inchysadung.tk
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While scholars still debate the diary's authenticity, the polemic surrounding the diary has led to studies on the relationship among culture, politics, and the memory of the Alamo. Few scholars have examined this battle, but there are many popular accounts, most of the older ones highly romantic.
Fight for the Alamo , offers a sprightly and unrelentingly unsentimental view and a guidance to sources. For the often overlooked Mexican side, including Santa Anna's self-defense and criticism by his officers, see Carlos E. By now growing desperate for assistance, he penned his famous message that has become known as the most heroic document in Texas history. Why did Santa Anna risk his army by attacking the Alamo instead of bypassing the old mission and marching straight for the heart of the Anglo settlements further to the east?
Such a small garrison would have posed little threat to his rear. Most historians would argue that he besieged the old mission and launched his ill-fated assault for political, not military reasons. The dictator promised the Mexican people that he would sweep the rebels out of Texas. If he dared to bypass the fortress, his enemies in Mexico City could claim that he avoided a fight.
The siege of the Alamo began with an artillery bombardment, while the Mexican infantry slowly encircled the old mission. Travis continued to send messages pleading for reinforcements, but the only meaningful assistance to arrive came on March 1 , when Lt. George C. Kimbell and his man Gonzales ranging company rode through the Mexican cordon surrounding the Alamo and entered the beleaguered mission. Although he was grateful for the assistance, Travis knew he needed more men if he was to properly defend the Alamo. He revealed his frustration with the lack of support in a letter to a friend.
The walls of the old mission were crumbling from the constant bombardment, and no Texan relief column had appeared. Soon the walls would be down anyway, and the Texans would be forced to surrender. Determined to make an example of the rebels, Santa Anna ignored these reasonable objections and ordered an attack for dawn on the morning of March 6.
The exhausted Texans were sleeping when the blare of Mexican bugles launched the assault. He was among the first defenders to die. Stephens Wikimedia Commons. Bravely scrambling up the scaling ladders into the face of direct fire, the Mexicans burst through the Texas defenses on the walls and pored into the Alamo , bayonets eager and ready to deal death.
Deadly hand-to-hand fighting raged throughout the old mission, bayonets against Bowie knives and rifles used as clubs. Jim Bowie was killed on his sickbed, though some credit him with fighting even there. The bodies of hundreds of soldiers, Texan and Mexican alike, lay intermingled in bloody heaps all across the compound.
There is no exact count of casualties suffered during the Battle of the Alamo.
Most historians hold the number at defenders and about Mexican soldiers. Legend had it that David Crockett was among the last of the Alamo defenders to die, and that he died fighting. However, Jose Enrique de la Pena wrote in his diary that Crockett and six others were put to death by order of Santa Anna after they tried to surrender. Not all the defenders of the Alamo were Anglo Americans.
Nine Tejano defenders also bravely gave their lives for the cause of Texas independence. Santa Anna ordered them released in hopes that they would spread fear across Texas. T he heroic sacrifice of the Alamo defenders accomplished little of military value. Some have claimed that the stand provided Sam Houston with the time he needed to raise and begin to train an army, but Houston spent most of his time during the 13 day siege at Washington-on-the-Brazos participating in the Convention of , not with the army.
However, the delay did allow the Texans to form a government and declare their independence; both necessary steps before any nation would recognize Texas. Had Santa Anna been permitted to advance straight into the eastern settlements, he may well have disrupted the proceedings and driven the rebels into Louisiana before the government was formed. Musings of history aside, there is one thing that cannot be denied.
Unfortunately, before Santa Anna could be lured to that fateful plain, a final tragedy was yet to unfold at Presidio La Bahia in Goliad.
Related The Alamo story: from early history to current conflicts
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